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In this section, we aim to give you some pointers and assistance in writing and presenting academic material.
Let’s start with something the Clinic is asked about pretty consistently…How do I reference in my term paper or thesis? Below we provide commentary and give some examples from published material and from two referencing systems used in third level colleges.
APA formatting embedded within your text uses parenthetical documentation so that your reader may locate the source of an idea or quote. The parenthetical documentation often contains only the author’s name and/or the year of the work being cited (but, remember, this is not always the case). When you mention an author’s name, you are required to insert the citation right after the author’s name. For example: When McElwee (2007) mentioned family systems theory, he was using a term that is widely used but, often, misunderstood.
When you mention a person’s idea, but not their name, you are required to insert the citation at the end of the sentence that describes the idea. For example: Students are often confused in how best to approach a family designated to be ‘at risk’ by authorities (McElwee, 2007).
When you use a direct quotation from a person, you need to mention the name as well as the page number where you found the quote. For example: McElwee (2005) stated, “Family is who you perceive it to be” (p. 65).
Display a quote of 40 or more words in a freestanding block of typewritten lines, and omit the quotation marks. Start such a block quotation on a new line and indent the block about ½ inch from the left margin. The entire quote should be double-spaced.
Trying to accurately cite Internet-based sources can be a nightmare. When you are using ideas from an electronic source, you also include the author’s name and the year. However, since many electronic sources do not have page numbers, use paragraph number. For example: (McElwee, 2010, 5).
References & Bibliography:
APA Formatting for the reference list (bibliography): This is list of all of the references the author has made within a paper/essay/thesis. This reference list contains the complete bibliographic information for a source, so that your reader can find out all of the pertinent information about a book, article, or electronic source. It is double-spaced. References are organized in alphabetical order by authors’ last name (or title when there is no author).
Book with no author:
The publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). (2001). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Books with one author:
McElwee, N. (2007). At Risk Children and Youth: Resiliency Explored. New York: Haworth Press.
Books with more than one author:
Garfat, T, & McElwee, N. (2005). Effective interventions with families. Cape Town: Pretext Press.
Share, P. & McElwee, N. (Eds.). (2005). Applied social care: An introduction for Irish students. Dublin: Gill & McMillan.
Chapter in an edited book:
McElwee, N. (2005). Legislative and service initiatives. In K. Lalor (Ed.), The end of innocence: Child sexual abuse in Ireland (pp. 27-58). Dublin: Oak Tree Press.
McElwee, N. (2005). Mental health, social care and adolescence: Two disciplines divided by a common language. Reflection and Rejuvenation, 1(1), 95-138.
Harvard Style Referencing
When you refer to another’s words or ideas in your work, you must cite your source. At an appropriate point in your text, provide the author’s surname and the year of publication in round brackets. Alternatively, if you include the author’s name in your sentence, only provide the year of publication in brackets:
It has been argued (Karpinchik 2013) that the main considerations are…
It has been argued by Karpinchik (2013) that the main considerations are…
Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book or Report: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.
Which translates to, Cameron, B. (2012) Policy Research, 5th ed., Boston:McGraw Hill.
More than one author
Author(s) name(s), initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.
Which translates to, Cameron, B., Karpinchik, L. and Byrne, E. (2011) The end of the world: the oldest story, Galway: Book Hub Publishing.
Book chapter or contibution
Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) ‘Title of chapter/contribution’, in Editor(s) or Compiler(s) of the book containing the contribution, ed.(s) [or comp.(s)],Title of Book:Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not first], Place of Publication: Publisher, page number(s).
Which translates to, Burke, L. and Smyth, J. (2010) ‘Empowering managers: are they being adequately resourced?’ in McElwee, N. and Cameron, B., eds., Managing Managers, Galway: Book Hub Publishing, 87-105.
Editor(s) name, initial(s)., ed(s). (year of publication) Title of Book: Subtitle [if any], ed. [if not 1st edition], Place of Publication: Publisher.
Which translates to, McElwee, N., Burke, N. and O’ Dea, C., eds. (2012) Research Analysis, Galway: Book Hub Publishing.
Book on the web – e book
Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of eBook, Name of eBook supplier [online], available: web address [accessed date].
Which translates to, Wolfe, G. (2012) A Divine Fairy’s Tale, Book Hub Publishing [online], available: http://…. [accessed 15 Oct 2012].
Reviewer’s name, initial(s). (year of publication of review) Title of Book Being Reviewed by Author(s) of book, reviewed in Title of Journal/Newspaper containing the review, volume(issue), page.
Which translates to, McElwee, N. (2012) The Project Management Toolkit by Murphy, W., reviewed in BioEngineering, 87(9), 34.
Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of Thesis, unpublished thesis (M.A., Phd, etc.), Institution to which the thesis was submitted.
Which translates to, McElwee, N. (2001) Risk & Resiliency, unpublished thesis (PhD.), University College Cork.
Course material – print
Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) ‘Title of item’, Module code: Module title, Institution, unpublished.
Which translates to, Burke, R. (2012) ‘Guide to referencing’, NM2232: Communications, University of Cork, unpublished.
Inventor name, initial(s)., Assignee (year of publication) Title, Patent number (status, if application).
Which translates to, Burke, R. and Mech Products (2009) Sub Sea Pipe Systems, U.S. Pat. 9,929,121.
Useful Books On Writing Theses
Bolker, Joan. (1998). Writing Your Thesis in Fifteen Minutes a Day: A Guide to Starting, Revising, and Finishing Your Thesis. New York: H. Holt.
Glatthorn, Allan A., and Randy L. Joyner. (2005). Writing the Winning Dissertation: A Step-By-Step Guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Mitchell, Lesli. (1996). The Ultimate Grad School Survival Guide. Princeton, NJ: Peterson’s.
Peters, Robert L. (1997). Getting What You Came For: The Smart Student’s Guide to Earning a Master’s or Ph.D. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Rudestam, Kjell Erik, and Rae R. Newton. (2001). Surviving Your Dissertation: A Comprehensive Guide to Content and Process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Sternberg, David Joel. (1981). How to Complete and Survive a Doctoral Dissertation. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Zerubavel, Eviatar. (1999). The Clockwork Muse: A Practical Guide to Writing Theses, Dissertations, and Books. Boston: Harvard University Press.
A Note On Referencing The Web
Referencing a web source can be difficult. If no author is given, web pages can be referenced by the organisation responsible or by the title instead. A good web site should, however, have sufficient ownership information to enable you to cite it. If no ownership is detectable, you should question whether the source is of sufficient academic quality. Ideally, you should aim to include the following information:
Author (if available) or Organisation. Publication Date.
Dr. Niall McElwee is the author/co-author of several academic books including ‘Children At Risk’, ‘Irish Society’, ‘At Risk Children and Youth: Resiliency Explored’, ‘Effective Interventions with Families’, ‘Applied Social Care’, ‘Risk and Resilience’, ‘Darkness on the Edge of Town’ and two creative books, ‘Humanitas’ and ‘Oisin’s Journey Home’ in addition to many peer-reviewed papers for various academic journals around the world. He was founding editor of the Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies for ten years. Dr. McElwee established the Dissertation Doctor’s Clinic in 2007.